Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) consist of radioactive material that comes out of the earth’s crust and mantle. Human activity results in increased radiological exposure. Industries, excluding uranium mining and all associated fuel cycle activities, are known to have NORM issues, include coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral (rare earth, titanium and zirconium), fertilizer (phosphate), building and recycling.
The following radionuclides are usually regulated under the NORM guidelines: Uranium238 series, Thorium230, Radium226, Lead210, Thorium232, Radium228, Thorium228 and Potassium40. Solids and waters are analyzed using a Gamma Spectroscopy method for the NORM radioactive elements.